Calculating the Community’s Interest in a Separate Property Asset

A transmutation of property occurs when the spouses agree to change the nature of the property. For example, suppose Henry owns a house, classified as his separate property, located in Corona, California. Henry decides he wants to share this property with Wendy and give her a legal interest in the property. In this example, Henry wants to change to the nature of his house from his separate property to community property. In order to validly transmute the property, or change the nature of the property, Henry must execute a written document according to the specifications of the Family Code.Without this written document, the nature of property cannot change from separate to community property. So, if Henry tells Wendy “I would like the Corona house to be our community property,” this statement alone is not a valid transmutation. There must be a writing that confirms the intent to change the nature of the property.In certain circumstances, the community can develop an interest in a separate property asset; however, despite this newly acquired interest, the nature of the property does not change from separate property to community property. That is the fact situation of Marriage of Moore.As discussed above, without an agreement otherwise, separate property remains the property of the separate property holder. In some instances, however, the community may acquire an interest in the separate property. In Marriage of Moore, Lydie Moore, prior to marriage, purchased a house in her name and acquired a mortgage for that property. Additionally, she made a down payment and began to repay loan. This occurred prior to her marriage to David so both the house and the loan are classified as Lydie’s separate property.After David and Lydie married, they moved into Lydie’s house and made payments on Lydie’s mortgage using community property funds. During this time, the house appreciated in value. When the couple separate and moved for dissolution of marriage, David argued that the community acquired an interest in the property and that the community should be compensated for this interest in the property.The Court agreed, however, it had to decide the extent of the community’s interest in the property. Ultimately, the Court decided that the community’s interest is based on the amount of community funds used to reduce the total purchase price. Additionally, the Court decided that community funds used to pay interest on the loan and taxes would not be included to calculate the community’s interest in the property.To illustrate the Court’s decision, I will use the marriage of Henry and Wendy. Assume that in 2000, prior to marriage, Wendy purchased a house in Rancho Cucamonga. The purchase price of the house is $100,000. Additionally, she secured a mortgage in her name and put $20,000 down. By 2003, Wendy paid a total of $10,000 in payments. In 2005, Wendy and Henry marry. The couple decides to live in Wendy’s home. After marriage, the couple pays $10,000 in mortgage payments. In 2010, Henry and Wendy file for dissolution of marriage. At the time of divorce, the property is worth $150,000.The house in Rancho Cucamonga is indisputably Wendy’s separate property because Wendy acquired both the property and the loan prior to marriage, using her own funds and credit for the mortgage. The community acquired an interest in the property because community funds were used to pay mortgage payments. The court must, however, compensate the community for the interest it acquired by making mortgage payments. Effectively, the community will receive the monetary value of its payments and proportional share of appreciation of the property. It takes several steps to calculate the community’s interest.Step One: Calculate the Community’s InterestTo calculate the community’s interest the court will divide the purchase price, here $100,000, by the total amount of community funds used to pay the mortgage, here $10,000. Thus, the community’s interest is 10% and Wendy’s separate property interest is 90%.Step Two: Calculate the AppreciationAdditional calculations are needed to determine the monetary amount each spouse receives. First, we have to calculate the appreciation of the property. To calculate the appreciation one must subtract the fair market value of the property at divorce from the original purchase price. The fair market value of the house at divorce is $150,000. The original purchase price is $100,000, thus the appreciation is $50,000.Step Three: Calculate the Amount of Compensation to the CommunityFirst the court must multiply the community’s interest by the amount of appreciation. Here the totally community interest in the appreciation is $5,000 (10% community interest times $50,000 the appreciation amount). Next, the court will add the $5000 to the total community contributions to mortgage equal. Here the community contributed $10,000 so the community’s interest in appreciation plus its total contributions to the mortgage equals $15,000.Therefore, the total community interest in the property is $15,000. Each spouse is entitled to half of the community property, so Henry will receive $7,500 and Wendy will receive $7,500.Wendy also receives the remaining value of the house as her separate property and the remaining amount of the mortgage is assigned to her as her separate debt.The Court in Moore specifically excluded taxes, insurance payments, and interest payments from its calculations. The Court reasoned that taxes, insurance payments, and interest payments are merely expenses and do not enhance the value of the property. Owners derive value from the property due to its equity; because these expenditures do not enhance the value of the property they are not to be included in the calculations of the community’s interest.While the nature of property cannot be changed without an agreement, it is possible for the community to develop an interest in a separate property asset. If community funds are used to pay the debt incurred for a separate property asset, such as a house, the community earns an interest in that property. The interest earned is reflected by proportion of community funds used to pay the original purchase price compared to the actual purchase price.Additional calculations are used to reflect the appreciation of the asset. Thus, the monetary value assigned to the community includes both the money used to pay the debt and proportional amount of asset appreciation. Finally, taxes, interest payments, and insurance payments are mere expenses and not to be included in the calculations.

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There is an excessive amount of traffic coming from your Region.


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There is an excessive amount of traffic coming from your Region.


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There is an excessive amount of traffic coming from your Region.


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Keep These 5 Rules in Mind for Successful Commercial Designing

Who doesn’t want an excellent commercial design? Excellent commercial design is important to maintain the reputation and brand image of the company. As it is said, the first impression is the last impression, a good impression always attracts potential customers. It’s obvious no one would ever love to walk in a congested environment with bad lighting.

Bad design and interiors deteriorate the productivity of the employees. It can be a confusing task when planning a commercial designing project for the first time, hiring expert Commercial Architects Melbourne can be the best option to know about the latest trends and perfect matching designs.

This blog is about some basic rules to consider for making the commercial project successful.
Keep structures versatile

When it comes to transforming any commercial space, focusing on convertibility and keeping office interior decor versatile can be the best option. It can be done by implementing a versatile structure to spaces such as cafeterias, offices, and many more. Everyone gives preference to comfort hence, focusing on spatial and versatile design will help to complete commercial designing projects in an optimal way.

Consider the latest technology implementations

Technology plays a supportive role to enhance the commercial designing project. Moving forward with the latest technology is important to execute any business smoothly because technologies make the work much easier and comfortable for the employee as well as organizations. Implementing centralized and decentralized digital control is much needed in any commercial design.

Keep office aesthetics updated

Good aesthetics and interiors impact the overall representation of the office and make the place functional and attractive. Hire a reputed designer for modern d├ęcor and furniture ideas. Hiring a designer reduces half of the project stress and helps to meet the contemporary fashion and latest trends. They can help to choose the perfect theme that blends well with the office decor, atmosphere, and colour.

Provide personalized space to prevent congestion

Majority of customer prefers personalized space such as different seating to seat comfortably and do the personal work. Personalized space is one of the crucial factors for customer-based service offices such as hotels and cafeterias to provide an ambient and comfortable place.

Always keep safety first

Safety is the central feature of every construction and designing project. Hence, it’s the high-priority factor to keep the aesthetic and functional safety at the working place. It can be compromised for interior decoration and design purposes but it’s not at all affordable to compromise for safety purposes.

Following the above useful ideas can easily help in the successful completion of a commercial designing project in a safe and pleasing way. In today’s, modern construction, reliability, and comfort is also an equally important factor.

Final words,

It’s important to hire the experienced Building designer Melbourne to make the commercial designing project worthy. Hope the above rules helped you to scale up your interior designing projects with a better outcome. Follow the above tips for any renovation or remodelling project and surely you will get award-winning and achieve a better office experience.

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How Long Should A Laptop Battery Last And How To Increase the Battery Life

No matter how expensive your laptop is, its battery won’t last more than four years. According to experts, a new laptop battery gives you as many as 1,000 cycles. In other words, you can charge and recharge the battery up to 1000 times. However, many factors play their role to increase or decrease the lifespan of a laptop battery. For instance, the material used for producing the battery substance. So, if you want to ensure that your battery stands the test of time, given below are some of the tips that can help.

1. Install a good battery monitor

If you are looking for an alternative, you can choose from tons of third-party utilities. Basically, the software programs help you monitor your laptop battery. These programs have no compatibility issues with any type of laptop.

Using these tools, you can find out which programs are using most of the battery power. You can then close the unwanted programs to save battery power.

2. Install maintenance apps

You can use some manufacturer-recommended maintenance tools for maintaining your laptop battery. Based on the type of your battery, you will receive different suggestions. Apart from this, your operating system will come with a built-in utility that can help you keep an eye on your battery condition.

3. Maintain your device temperature

You should try your level best to ensure your laptop maintains its temperature. In summer, electronic devices tend to heat up, which negatively impacts the life of the battery packs.

Therefore, you should make sure that there is a little bit of space between the bottom of the device and the table you have placed your device on. Besides, the ventilation system of your device should be working properly. For this purpose, regular cleaning of your device is quite important.

4. Don’t use maximum brightness

When your screen brightness is at maximum level, your device will use the maximum power. So, turning down the brightness is the first thing you can do to save power. Also, it is not a good idea to keep the brightness at max level as it can have a negative impact on your eyesight.

So, by following these simple tips, it will be easier for you to extend the life of your laptop battery.

5. Change the power-saving settings

Before you do anything, go into the power options of your laptop. If you are using Windows operating system, you can go to the control panel to access the power options. The control panel can be accessed from the Start Menu.

Some users have MacOS. If you are one of them, you need to access Energy Saver, which is found in the System Preferences. If these values are set to default, your computer will use the least amount of power.

So, what you need to do is make small changes to the settings so that you achieve a balance between power and performance. For best performance, there is always the choice to connect your device to the AC outlet.

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The Best Ways I’ve Found To Make Money Online From Home

Have you been looking for a way to make money online without having to know much of the internet stuff? Wanting to work at home but don’t know how to do it? Here is the key gem: Between all the tricks on joining the craft beer movement, opening a gallery or being a tour operator, you will find clever advice that anybody can apply to make money online quickly.

The most basic way to make money online is through affiliate marketing. It is really easy. Basically you set up an ad for someone she is selling something and when they click through and buy it, you make money! Simple enough if you have no technical skill at all. Here are some simple tips on how to earn using affiliate marketing:

Drop-shipping is one of the most useful methods. You select a product in which you believe there is a demand and then drop-ship it to your customers in small quantities. You make money from the difference between what the stock costs and what you sell it for. For this method, it is important to note that you may need to make space for your inventory on your premises or perhaps wait until you have a build of an inventory before you can start drop-shipping; but the advantages make it a good choice for those seeking to make money online from their spare time.

Paid surveys are a great way to earn some extra cash. These can be accessed easily and there are many sites where you can get paid from spending your spare time. There is one site, though, which is said to pay $200 a week for twelve weeks straight – you can’t beat that kind of money making potential. With paid surveys, it is important to note that the sites are generally scams, and that you need to do some research to ensure you are making good money making opportunities.

Finally, a passive income generating method that can bring in money on autopilot is eToro’s Forex trading. This works by allowing you to invest on a demo account and earn money from the performance of the currencies being exchanged. The best thing about this system is that it allows you to do virtually anything and still see profits coming in. eToro has an average starting price of less than $50 and can generate an income of five figures in just a few months.

These are the best things I have found for making money online from your home. Though none of them are as good as, say, a paid-online course, they are much more affordable and can provide a valuable education to start earning money immediately online. With just a little research, you should be able to find a legitimate opportunity to get paid to learn the basics of making money in the currency markets. This is a truly remarkable opportunity.

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Finding the Best Business Idea For Your Home Based Business

How many home based business opportunities are available to you? If you want to make money online at home, you really have many options to choose from. The big question is – which one will give you the biggest chance of success? Is there a ‘one size fits all’ answer? The simple truth is that not every opportunity is right for everyone, and not every opportunity will bring you the greatest amount of profit.

So, what are some home business ideas that can make money online for you? The quick and dirty answer is: the one that best suits your particular set of needs. Make a list of your priorities, including a high income; a low-risk schedule; freedom; flexibility; work-life balance; independence; something in your range of skills and expertise; and interesting work that you have an interest in… You can take this list with you and talk to people who are working from home on the same things that you would be considering. Chances are that you will find some great niches that fit your standards and your desires.

But what if you want to get started right away? It’s easy to think that you can jump into a new business idea and be successful immediately, but this often isn’t the case. It takes many different things to make sure that you will be able to get through the hurdles and actually make it to a point where you are seeing profit. If you don’t work at it slowly, you will be setting yourself up for failure. Here’s the lowdown on some different things that you should consider as you create your own business idea:

First, you need to think about what you have to offer. If you don’t have any ideas as to what to do as a freelance writer, a lowdown on finding a niche is very important. Many beginners go into this completely clueless. But if you know that you have a skill that others are desperately seeking, you may be able to provide them with the service they are looking for without having to spend much time building up a website or getting traffic to it.

Another thing to consider is what kinds of products or services would best fit a niche that you would like to get started in. In this case, the lowdown on finding the best business idea for you would include taking a look at what you love to do and what you can offer others. If writing is not your strongest point, but you love to get creative, consider freelance data entry. Freelance data entry does not require a lot of startup capital, but you still need to have the skills that will allow you to be successful in this area. The best lowdown on finding the best business idea for you is to simply start looking at what you like to do and what you can offer others.

There are many other areas of freelance writing that you can explore in order to make the most out of your home based online business. Freelance writers are in high demand online. If you have the skills that are needed to do well in this field, there is no reason that you should not be able to find a great home-based online business that will give you the income that you want.

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Earn Money Writing From Home And Never Run Out of Ideas

Is it your dream to work from home as a writer and earn money from everything you write? That was my dream for years, and 20 years ago it became my reality.

One of the hardest things at first was to come up with ideas of what to write about. I started by doing freelance writing and I also set up my own website and I wanted to write and publish books. It was all a great plan, but it meant coming up with thousands of ideas.

At first I didn’t think it was possible, but it turned out that not only was it possible to come up with endless ideas for writing, but I ended up with notebooks full of ideas because I had more than I could ever use at once.

And I’ll tell you 3 things that helped.

1. I write fast. Once I’m into writing an addictive story or an interesting article – or series of articles, I get into a writing ‘flow’ and can write for hours. I never stop and second-guess myself. I just keep writing because fast writers are mega producers and never have time for writers’ block.

2. The more I write and the faster I write, the more writing ideas I have. Productive writers always get an abundance of ideas as they write. When I’m immersed in my writing, my creative mind goes into hyper-drive. Even if I started with only one or two ideas, once I sit down and start writing the ideas start flowing. And it doesn’t matter what I write. Even if I’m journaling or copying out someone else’s writing by hand (just for practice), it inspires ideas.

3. I love to write. Most days I’m excited and motivated to sit down and write. I hurry through other chores I have to do so that I can get to my desk and write.

At first, being a writer was hard because it’s not easy to work from home with no boss, no set hours and too many distractions. But once I got a writing routine, I found that once I sat my backside in my chair and started writing, it was easy to ignore everything and motivation arrived and kept me going.

So if you find yourself longing to write but stuck for ideas, just sit down and start writing. Write anything even if it’s just nursery rhymes you were taught as a kid, or open a book and start handwriting it out.

And if you’re like me you’ll find that even on days when you think you don’t feel like writing and the ideas just won’t come, sit down and write anyway, and before you know it you’ll be overloaded with ideas.

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How to Keep, Maintain, and Grow a Successful Online Business Presence

In today’s current global economic climate, just having an online business presence is not enough to stay competitive in today’s global economy. Competition from various e-commerce sites around the globe, providing a vast array of goods and services that impact all of our lives, and communities in this global village that we live in.Especially now with the global economic downturn these past 2 years, you must have a competitive edge, mindset and a product and or service that makes your competitors envious of your business acumen. What is your unique selling voice-your brand of one that sets you above your competition?I receive many online inquiries from many online home business and offline business owners regarding what action steps and techniques can business owners take regarding how to better market themselves online, from the WAHMs, to the small work at home business that you’ve just started in your home to the old-fashioned brick and mortar business-it doesn’t really matter because the concept is still the same. Product and/or Service must provide True Quality and Value This is probably common sense to most people, however the reality of online businesses, is that the vast majority of online opportunities (sadly to say), are not providing a quality product and/or service with true value. The product and or service that you are promoting is KEY. If the product and or service you are providing does not provide true value then you need to seriously question what it is that you are promoting/selling. Most are promoting a system of recruitment which is the business which is fraud and illegal.Secondly, would you buy the product and or service even if you were not in the business? This is crucial. If you are unwilling to buy the product and/or service yourself, how do you expect to sell and promote a product and/or service that you would not purchase? This is like a Honda car salesman owning a Ford vehicle but selling a Honda car. You lose credibility and integrity and people are smart enough to know phonies and fakes a mile away. If you want to be successful online or offline, it is imperative that you actually own the product and/or service that you promoting, so you can succinctly and directly bestow to your potential customers, the benefits of the product and or service you are promoting. People don’t CARE how much you KNOW, until you show them how much you CARE This is key not just in an online or offline business, but is a bigger parable for life. It doesn’t matter what field your business is in, whether vacation travel, or real estate. People do not want to be SOLD to, they want to be informed with clear, concise, and understandable information that causes the customer to want to take action. The potential customer visiting your online website or offline store should want to buy a product and or service that addresses their emotional needs. If it doesn’t the customer will leave your website or store and go to another that will address their emotional need to take action. Traffic the LIFEBLOOD for any Online or Offline Business Just being online these days does not guarantee success for anyone. You could have the best site in the universe with the best product and/or service offering since sliced bread. But guess what? If nobody notices or see’s your website-to the rest of the online world-you don’t exist. With millions of websites that exist, you need to ask yourself, how will your site get noticed? How will you drive traffic to your site on a regular and consistent basis? And more importantly what steps can you do now in planting the seeds for tomorrow’s business harvest? Establish a Website Linkeage Program You must have website links to your site to stay competitive in the online business game if you want to have any chance of reasonable success. Just as blood is the life-force for our bodies that God made that flows daily through our veins daily giving us life-website links too is the business life force that increases your online presence by giving your website exposure. Irrespective of your website business niche, you need to seek out links from other websites to link to your site. Seek out other like minded business owners and offer link exchanges for a reciprocal link to your site. But do not exchange links with POOR quality websites. MOTHER GOOGLE, YAHOO, and now BING will penalize websites that have links all over the place that link to poor sites. Quality should also trump Quantity! Submit Articles in Your business to Online Article Directories If your website is about vacation travel, submit article tips about travel- how to get the best vacation deals, the best flights. Become a travel planning expert in your niche by providing invaluable information related to the travel industry. Maybe you’re a home business work at home business expert, offer helpful inside tips and other helpful information to home business directories and the entrepreneur how to create his or her own business idea. Or maybe you run a travel website. Join online Forums by contributing in your area of Expertise The internet has revolutionized how business is done globally via the internet. There is a wealth of information only a mouse click away, but you have to be savvy enough how and where to look without being distracted from the gazillion of other rubbish sites that also exist. Again, if your expertise is in the home business work at home business field, why not join several online forums and offer valuable insightful information in the home business niche. What should people be aware of? What sound business steps should one take. And more importantly, what business field or product line or service offering should they decide. But remember that you are joining to provide helpful information-not spamming others. Spamming will not only get you banned, but could adversely impact negatively your online business presence. Promote a contest or Promotion Free Give Away Irrespective of your niche business (providing you are providing a product and/or service that provides true value), people like freebies. Who doesn’t. if you go in almost any ice-cream store, the salespeople behind the gallons of ice-cream will gladly give away FREE spoonfuls of ice-cream to waiting patrons. Why? Because they know customers are in the store to buy anyway-and it strengthens the product offering.An online business should be treated the same way. If you’re selling antique porcelain dolls from China, why not give away a free porcelain doll for the first 100th person sign up in your newsletter? Conduct a contest. You win because you are getting more sign-ups for your quarterly or monthly newsletter for possible future sales-and potential customers who see your quality website to take a chance of winning something of value fee. Remember, you are only limited by your imagination in how you can promote your online website and growing your business presence.Remember: “The only Unfulfilled Goals in Your Life are the Ones you Never Attempt”

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